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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Abrasion Resistance Ability of a coating to resist degradation caused by mechanical wear (mechanical erosion) due to its ability to dissipate the applied mechanical energy. Abrasion resistance can be enhanced by incorporation of surface modifying additives (see surface conditioners and surface modifiers). Abrasion resistance is not necessarily related to hardness as believed by some, but is more clearly comparable with toughness.
Accelerated Weathering A test designed to simulate but at the same time intensify and accelerate the destructive action of natural outdoor weathering.
Accelerator A substance used in small proportions to increase the speed of a chemical reaction. Accelerators are used to hasten the curing of a coating system. Also known as catalyst.
Acrylic A family of synthetic resins made from acrylic acids.
Acrylic Latex (paint) Water-reducible paint made with a binder that has acrylic as some portion of the composition. Other modifiers of the binder that may be added to reduce cost or add specific properties include styrene, epoxy, and polyvinyl acetate (PVA).
Acrylic Resin A clear resin made by the polymerization of acrylic monomers such as acrylates Methyl, Ethyl, Butyl or acrylic acid.
Activator The curing agent of a two component/compound coating system.
Adhesion The degree of attachment between a film forming finish and the underlying material to which it is in contact without blistering, flaking, cracking or being removed by tape. The two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces and/or interlocking/mechanical action.
Mechanical Adhesion – An interlocking of two materials because of shape, texture, etc. causing the two materials to remain affixed one to the other. Also known as tooth.
Chemical adhesion – A chemical reaction of two materials that bonds the two together.
Adsorb/Adsorption Refers to the process of one material attracting and holding molecules of another substance to the surface of its molecules.
Air Cap/Air Nozzle Perforated housing for directing the atomizing air at the head of an air spray gun. Atomizes the coating and shapes the fan.
Air Drying A common form of curing a coating in which drying takes place by oxidation or solvent evaporation by simple exposure to air without heat or catalyst.
Air Entrapment A defect caused by the inclusion of air bubbles in liquid coating film. Often caused by applying the finish too thick, too heavily, or excessive brushing without topping off.
Air-assisted airless An airless spray system operating at lower fluid pressure, typically 300-400 PSI, that uses a small amount of air to shape the spray fan and eliminate the spray tails at the ends of the fan pattern. Used most often in production spraying settings where speed and quality are needed.
Airless Spray A spraying system in which coating is atomized using high hydraulic (fluid) pressure rather than compressed air.
Alcohol A group of solvents of relatively high evaporation rate but with fairly low solvent strength. Commonly used as a solvent in shellac, NGR stains, dyes, inks, and lacquer. Alcohols include Methanol, Ethanol, Isopropanol, n-Butanol, Isooctanol, Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol, Isoamyl Alcohol, Isobutyl Alcohol, Cyclohexanol, and Methyl Cyclohexanol.
NOTE - Methanol is highly toxic both in skin contact as well as by inhalation. Methanol is readily absorbed by the skin and can metabolize to formaldehyde then to formic acid. Methyl alcohol is also known as methanol, methyl hydrate, or wood alcohol.
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons A class of organic solvents which are composed of open chains of carbon atoms. Aliphatics are relatively weak solvents. Mineral spirits, paint thinner, VM&P naphtha, Stoddard Solvent, petroleum naptha, petroleum distillate, cyclohexane, octane, pentane, nonane, kerosine, gasoline, and heptane, propane, butane, hexane are all aliphatic hydrocarbons.
Alkali An aqueous liquid which has a pH value of between 7 and 14. A base or caustic material.
Alkyd Resin A family of synthetic resins formed by the condensation of polyhydric alcohols with polybasic acids. May be regarded as complex polyester (thermoset).
Alligatoring A form of paint failure in which cracks form on the surface layer only. It is caused by the application of a hard drying paint over a relatively soft paint or by the application of thick films, in which case the underlying surface remains relatively soft. It is also caused by the application of paint over unseasoned wood. As the name implies, an alligatored surface is one that resembles the hide of an alligator in that it is cracked into large segments. As the surface of the thick film dries it tends to shrink. The soft undried, bottom layers of the thick film allow the surface film to shrink thereby causing the alligatoring.
Ambient Temperature Room temperature or the existing temperature of the surroundings.
Amine Materials often used as curing agents for epoxy coatings.
Aniline (Acid) Dye Synthetic transparent colors which dissolve in the solvent for which they are formulated (i.e., water, alcohol, or oil). Some dyes are reducible in multiple solvents.
Anti-blocking agent Additive used to lessen the adhesion of coated surfaces to another surface. Acts by producing a slight roughening of the surface. Are typically finely divided, solid minerals, but some are waxes.
Antioxidant Compounding material used to retard deterioration of coating films caused by oxidation, heat exposure, etc..
Application Any process by which a coating is transferred to a surface to be finished. Techniques include padding, wiping, brushing, spraying, and dipping.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons derive their name from the "pleasant" odor attributed to many of these substances. The aromatic solvents are produced from the distillation of petroleum or coal tar. A class of relatively strong organic solvents which contain an unsaturated ring of carbon atoms. Not all molecules with ring (loop) structures are aromatic. Examples are Toluene (toluol), Xylene (xylol), Phenol, Benzene, Styrene, Diethylbenzene, Methylnaphthalene, Ethylbenzene.
Asphalt/Asphaltum A black resinous material of petroleum origin.
Atomization Formation of tiny droplets of liquid as in the spraying process. A finish that is properly atomized will produce tiny droplets mist like in appearance. A poorly atomized coating will consist of larger droplets that may not flow out to form a smooth, level film.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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