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Solvents: Reducers, Retarders, Thinners

Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Sag Resistance The ability of a coating to be applied at proper film thicknesses without sagging.
Sag/Sagging Narrow (or wide curtain-like) downward movement of a film finish; may be caused by the application of too much coating, the collection of excess quantities of finish at irregularities in the surface (cracks, holes, etc.), or excessive material continuing to flow after the surrounding surface has set. Also referred to as runs or tears.
Salt Atmosphere A moist, heavily ladened air with a high chloride concentration; used as a test for accelerated corrosion evaluations and also present near sea coast areas.
Salt Fog Test A cabinet designed to accelerate the corrosion process in evaluating coatings; combines 100% humidity with a 5% salt concentration at 100F in an enclosed cabinet.
Sandability Ease of sanding of a coating.
Sanding Sealer Especially hard first coat that can seal and fill, but will not obscure, the grain of the wood. Formulated to give better filling and sandability than the topcoat products. The surface is then sanded before subsequent coats are applied.
Saponification The alkaline hydrolysis of fats whereby a soap is formed; typical reaction between alkyds and galvanized metals resulting in peeling.
Satin Finish Sheen of coating with a 60 degree gloss reading between 10 and 40.
Scratch resistance Ability of a coating surface to resist to damage caused by sharp and hard objects. Influenced by the hardness, the coefficient of friction and the thickness of the film.
Scrub resistance Ability of a coating surface to resist to damage caused by rough objects in the presence of an active medium (water or organic liquid, abrasive material).
Scrubbability The ability of a coating to resist wearing away or changing its original appearance when rubbed with a brush, sponge, or cloth and an abrasive soap.
Scuff Sand To lightly sand in order to remove the shine or roughness of a surface prior to recoating.
Sealer A coating used on absorbent surfaces prior to topcoats.
Secondary Colors Colors formed by mixing together two primary colors. They are orange, green, and purple.
Seeding Formation of small agglomerates or gel particles (seeds) in a coating. Caused by resin insolubility, aggregation of pigment particles, or a combination of both factors.
Semi-gloss A finish with a sheen level between high gloss and satin (or eggshell).
Settling The sinking of pigments, extenders, flatteners or other solid matter in a coating/paint, on standing in a container, with a consequent accumulation on the bottom of the can.
Shade A shade is created when black is added to a color. It is a darker variant of a color.
Shading/Shading Stain A shading stain is a dye and/or pigmented colorant added to a thinned clear film forming finish used to add coloring in specific areas on a piece being finish. Shading can be used to accentuate a design feature, increase the color intensity, alter the existing color, or to blend and uniform area(s) on the piece.
Shelf Life Period of time during which a finishing product stored according to the manufacturer's instructions (packaging, temperature, humidity) retains its expected properties.
Shellac Alcohol-soluble resin derived from lac available in a variety of grades/colors. Lac is a substance secreted by insects on tree branches, mainly in India. Used as a sealer for sealing knots, a clear finish, and in "alcohol-based" primers. The thinner is denatured alcohol.
Siccative Catalyst used for drying according to the oxidative polymerization mechanism (aka, drier).
Silicone Resins Resins based on silicone instead of carbon, generally used for their outstanding heat resistance and water repellency.
Silking Fine parallel irregularities in a paint film that give the appearance of silk. This defect usually is a special case of floating and flocculation in coating finishes.
Skinning The formation of a solid membrane on the top of a liquid, caused by partial curing or drying of the coating during storage.
Slip agent Additive which reduces the friction coefficient and thereby improve slip characteristics of coating films. Various waxes, silicones or modified polyesters can be used to increase surface slip.
Softwood The group of trees (fir, pine, spruce, hemlock) characterized by its needles and being (for the most part) evergreen. The term does not refer to the hardness of the wood, only its classification.
Solids by volume Percentage of the total volume occupied by nonvolatile compounds.
Solids by weight Percentage of the total weight occupied by nonvolatile compounds.
Solids Content Non-volatile matter in the composition of a coating. The ingredients in a coating that, after drying, constitute the dry film. Solids are composed mostly of binder and pigment (in paints).
Soluble The ability of a material to be dissolved in a liquid For example, sugar is soluble in water.
Solvent A solvent is a liquid that dissolves another substance to form a solution (a homogeneous mixture). The material dissolved in the solvent is called the solute. Together, the solvent and solute comprise the solution. The solvent is the component in the solution that is present in the largest amount or is the one that determines the state of matter (i.e. solid, liquid, gas) of the solution. Solvents are usually, but not always, liquids. They can also be gases or solids. Solvents can dissolve solids, liquids or gases. Water is a solvent. Every day, people dissolve soap in water creating a soap solution. Different classes of solvents dissolve different substances more readily. For example, some oils readily dissolve in mineral spirits, but not in water.
Solvent Entrapment The encapsulation of solvent within a cured coating film due to improper drying conditions; results in a non-continuous film.
Spar Varnish Exterior varnish with good water resistance and the capability to resist weathering. Named for its original use on the spars of ships.
Specification A set of instructions detailing the plan for coating of a project; a list of criteria for a coating.
Splotch See "Blotch."
Spray Head The combination of needle, tip and air cap.
Spray Pattern The configuration of coating sprayed on the surface.
Spread Rate Coverage, usually at the specified dry film thickness.
Stain A partly transparent coating that can color wood without obscuring the grain and/or the texture. May also refer to materials that soil the surface.
Stain Bleed-through When tannin found in certain types of wood (such as oak, cedar, or redwood) migrates through the coating, causing discoloration. Also, discoloration from a contaminant on the substrate.
Stain Resistance The ability of a coating to resist soiling.
Stripping Removing old paint, varnish, etc., by using a chemical paint remover, sandpaper, heat gun, or scraping tools.
Strong Solvent Any solvent capable of dissolving large quantities of a specified subject.
Substrate Any surface to which a coating or sealant is applied.
Surface Conditioner Molecular, or more frequently, micro-phase surface modifying coatings additives such as fine particle size waxes designed for use in coatings to impart improved mechanical, optical, and electrical surface properties to organic coatings. They enhance their anti-blocking properties, scratch and mar resistance, and impart water-repellency. Surface conditioners are widely used in wood coatings to improve the blocking resistance and sandability, scratch and abrasion resistance, matting and soft surface feel.
Surface Defects Defects that occur during and immediately after application of a finish and which have a negative influence on both the coating appearance and performance. Surface defects may result from a number of causes, including poor substrate wetting, insufficient flow, surface distortion associated with solvent evaporation and surface cooling, foaming and air entrapment, and contamination of the finish, air or substrate.
Surface Modifiers Collective term for several groups of additives to enhance properties of ready coatings (slip control, anti-blocking, abrasion and scratch resistance etc.), same as surface conditioners.
Surface Preparation Any means for preparing a surface for finishing including cleaning, grain-raising, sanding, filling, and spot priming.
Surfacer Pigmented composition for filling depressions in order to obtain a smooth, uniform surface before applying the finish coat.
Surfactant Contracted from surface-active agents, these are additives which reduce surface tension and thereby improve wetting (wetting agents), help disperse pigments, inhibit foam, or emulsify. Conventionally, they are classified as to their charge: anionic (negative); cationic (positive); nonionic (no charge); or amphoteric (both positive and negative).
Surfactant Leaching Also called water-spotting and weeping. It is often a tan-colored, glossy residue that can form on the surface when exterior latex paint is applied under conditions that are cool and damp, that result in slow dry of the paint. May not readily wash off, but generally will weather off within a month's time.
Suspension A relatively coarse, non-colloidal dispersion of solid particles in a liquid.
Synthetic Manufactured, as opposed to naturally occurring.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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